Monday, April 28
MK Ultra and Paperclip Operation: no trial for these crimes
The Nuremberg Tribunal even did the work but no lesson was learned. On the contrary, some of the scientists who had been on trial ended up working in US.
How can it be that numerous crimes against humanity are being committed on a daily basis since last century and only a few citizens wants justice?
I do not know.
By Harry V. Martin and David Caul
The Nuremberg Tribunal revealed that some respected medical professionals were involved in a vast crime network of the SS. Two hundred German doctors conducting these experiments. Most were friends of the U.S. before the war. Despite their inhuman experiments, the U.S. rebuilt relationships with them after the war. The U.S. tracked down Dr. Hubertus Strughold, the aviation doctor in charge of "aviation medicine" experiments at Dachau*.
General Eisenhower gave his approval to exploit the work and research of the Nazi death camps. Within weeks, many notorious Nazi doctors were working for the U.S. Army at Heidelberg. Army teams scoured Europe for scientific experimental apparatus such as pressure chambers, compressors, G-force machines, giant centrifuges and electron microscopes. These doctors were wined and dined by the U.S. Army while most German citizens virtually starved.
Under Strughold's leadership, 34 Nazi scientists accepted contracts from Project Paperclip and were moved to Randolph Air Force Base, Texas. Authorization to hire them came from the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Despite the lessons of Nuremberg and the death camps, the CIA, U.S. Navy and the Army's Chemical Corps targeted groups for experimentation who were unable to resist; prisoners, mental patients, foreigners, ethnic minorities, sex deviants, the terminally ill, children, U.S. military personnel and prisoners of war. They violated the Nuremberg Code by conducting and subsidizing experiments on unwitting citizens. The CIA began MKULTRA in 1953, the very year the U.S. signed the Nuremberg Code pledging to prohibit experiments on captive populations without full and free consent.
When Americans landed on the moon, two groups of scientist shared the credit:
(1) the rocket team under Werner von Braun who perfected the V-2s, built in Nordhausen where 20,000 slave laborers from prison camp Dora were worked to death.
(2) the space doctors, led by Hubertus Strughold, whose work was pioneered at Dachau and the torture and death of hundreds. The torture chambers used to slowly kill Nazi prisoners were the test beds for apparatus that protected Neil Armstrong from harm, from lack of oxygen and pressure, when he walked on the moon."
*Dachau Concentration Camp
Strughold's experiments at Dachau, used prisoners as test subjects. Prisoners included: Communists, Social Democrats, Jews, Jehovah's Witnesses, Roma, clergymen and homosexuals. Inmates were immersed in tubs of ice water while instruments monitored their deaths. Other experiments tested the limits of human endurance at high altitudes: lack of oxygen, high pressure, etc. These "experimental" pressure chambers were also used to execute prisoners.
I found this text written by an anonymous at the "Talk" page of Wikipedia's article about Paperclip Operation:
Rethinking the Ethics of "Paperclip Operation" - the case of Kurt Blome
Ethically the question that arises from the operation concerns ensuring the greater good of the public versus the personal criminal responsibility of people who possibly committed crimes against humanity. this question might be analysed is two different levels.
By analyzing the reason for the the operation one might claim that basically it was not because of any Just or an Altruistic reason. The reason for "Paperclip Operation" was to enhance American military superiority by denying German scientific expertise and knowledge from the other allies (mainly USSR)and insuring that post war Germany will not redevelop its military research capabilities. The hidden assumption here is that the American post WW-II "new dawn" will ensure world peace and prosperity - therefore a greater legitimate humane goal. However, it could be argued that the case of a "greater good" is in question as the USA basically was Only interested in its own Selfish good. More than that, Judging by the history of the cold war there is a solid claim that while it was "good" for America - it was "not that good" for other countries as in S.E Asia, Middle East or Central America etc.
On the second and more important level of analysis - even if assuming there is a rightful and just equilibrium in which Nazi terror & horror scientists are forgiven for their wartime "mischief's" in order to maintain world stability there is a line in which ethically the US government crossed in the "Paperclip Operation". thus, we must draw the line between scientists that where involved in general support to the German wartime effort and scientist who while supporting the German wartime effort where involved personally in crimes against humanity. For example the most famous scientist related to "paperclip Operation" - Wernher Von Braun While- an avid Nazi enthusiastic and party member, who probably did not take active part in crimes against humanity (if we do not consider the rocket attacks against civilians as crimes against humanity). on the other hand, forgiving scientist that where involved in human research in the fields of Biology and such is definitely something else.
This is the case of Kurt Blome, a high-ranking Nazi scientist during World War II and Deputy Reich Health Leader. Blome admitted that in 1943 he conducted experiment with plague vaccines on concentration camp prisoners. He was tried at the Doctors' Trial in 1947 on charges of practicing euthanasia he experiments on humans. he also assumed responsibility for all research into biological warfare sponsored by the Wehrmacht and the S.S. As part of the Nazi biological warfare program code-named 'Blitzableiter' (Lightning Rod. Blome's Institute was a camouflaged operation for the production of biological warfare agents. furthermore, there is a known collaboration of the German Bio-warfare program with the infamous Japanese Unit 731 and the Japanese Biological Warfare Program.
Blome was not unique; other scientists like Konard Schafer, Jurgen Von Klenck,Hermann Becker-Freyseng, Erich Traub, Walter Schreiber,Otto Ambros, Hubertus Strughold, Theodor Benzinger and many more where part of the "Paperclip Operation" and where connected to experiments on human prisoners in Dachau (a Nazi concentration camp near Munich in which over 30,000 prisoners where murdered) and other sites of terror. Currently, it is widely believed that American intervention saved Blome and the other "doctors" from the gallows - rehabilitating them in the USA in order to use their horrific knowledge gained during the rule of terror by Nazi Germany in Europe. — Preceding unsigned comment added by 220.127.116.11 (talk) 13:11, 15 April 2014 (UTC)
JURISPRUDENCE is the real fight.